Brain drain is also known as “The human capital flight”. It can be simply defined as the mass emigration of technically skilled people from one country to another country. Brain-drain can have many reasons, for example-political instability of a nation, lack of opportunities, health risks, personal conflicts etc. Brain-drain can also be named as “human capital flight” because it resembles the case of capital flight, in which mass migration of financial capital is involved.
The term brain-drain was introduced by observing the emigration of the various technologists, doctors and scientists, from various developing countries (including Europe) to more developed nations like USA. Now this phenomenon of brain drain has a conversed effect for a country in which people are getting migrated and brain-drain of a nation becomes brain-gain for that particular country. Usually all developing countries including India are suffering from brain drain and developed countries like USA are having brain gain from this phenomenon.
Brain drain from Europe
A few years before, Europe was one of extreme sufferers of the brain-drain. In Europe brain drain was occurring in two stages. First was the migration of workers from the southeastern Europe and Eastern Europe to the Western Europe. And other stage of brain-drain was the migration from Western Europe to the USA. But this cycle of migration is getting slower these days. To stop the brain-drain Europe community also launched a provision called “Blue-card”. It’s same as green-card facility of USA. In fact EU was getting much more liable for the immigrants of Asia in last decade in order to compensate the brain-drain. But at the same time EU is worried about the effects of foreign population on culture and environment of Europe, so these days EU is implying some strict rules to regulate flow of immigrants.
This continent has suffered maximum because of brain-drain. According to a survey Ethiopia lost its 75 % of skilled workers in the years 1980-1991. This mass migration of skilled workers is showing extremely detrimental effects on the development of nation. In the similar manner Kenya and Nigeria are also great sufferers of brain-drain.
Countries of Middle East like Iraq, Iran etc are also great sufferers of the phenomena of brain-drain. Lack of some basic facilities and services are the reasons for the mass migration from these areas. Dictatorship, terrorism, orthodox attitude are basic hurdles of development of this region.
Countries like china, Pakistan, Russia and India are also facing problems of brain-drain. Unemployment, population explosion and corrupt political systems are main reasons for migration of skilled workers from Asia. In countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh etc graduates, post graduates, experienced and skilled professionals are not getting enough opportunities to develop and succeed. So with dreams of development these professionals leave their native country in search of better future. This brain-drain is a great loss to these developing countries.
What Is Brain Gain
On the other hand brain-gain is just an opposite situation to brain-drain. Countries in which skilled workers are migrating are said to brain-gaining countries. Examples include- USA, Canada and UK. These countries are having brain-gain because these nations are rich and have enough work opportunities. Moreover, they provide better facilities and life styles.
For the balance of power and for the staggered development of the world, it is very important to stop the phenomena of brain-drain. This will help a particular country to use all local skilled citizens for development and proliferation. But to hold these skilled workers at their native places, it is also important to provide them enough work opportunities and living facilities. For this purpose, developed nations should help developing countries with necessary money and resources. So that each and every human of this planet can have good standard of living and each and every nation can introduce itself as a developed nation.